California verbal learning test trial among the polish homeless
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Department of Pulmonology, School of Public Health, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Faculty of Theology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Provincial Psychiatric Treatment Unit in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Biopharmacy, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland
Submission date: 2023-10-15
Final revision date: 2023-11-02
Acceptance date: 2023-11-02
Online publication date: 2023-12-31
Corresponding author
Anna Romaszko-Wojtowicz   

Department of Pulmonology, School of Public Health, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Jagiellońska 78, 10-357 Olsztyn, Poland.
Acta Elbingensia 2023;50(1):10-18
Reports on the low intellectual level of the homeless are quite numerous and independent of the geographical location of the study.

The aim is to assess cognitive functions among the homeless as measured by the California verbal learning test (CVLT).

Material and methods:
In our study we included 102 homeless people to assess the functioning of verbal memory using the CVLT. The absolute value of the sum of the results in tasks 1–5 amounted only to 36.21 (SD 10.63). Almost 42% of the subjects obtained a sten score of 1 or 2 for this task.

Results and discussion:
In all tested CVLT parameters the homeless people, who were the respondents of the present study, obtained results that were significantly below standards (low or very low).

These results indicate the presence of large numbers of people with severe verbal memory disorders among the homeless.

We declare no financial support from any organization.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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