Assessment of nervomuscle coordination in the act of swallowing using dynamic imaging tests performed by cone beam computer tomography
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Faculty of Medicine, Academy of Applied Medical and Social Science in Elbląg, Poland
Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Faculty of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, Mazovian University in Płock, Poland
Submission date: 2023-10-12
Final revision date: 2023-11-14
Acceptance date: 2023-11-14
Online publication date: 2023-12-29
Corresponding author
Edyta Zomkowska   

Faculty of Medicine, Academy of Applied Medical and Social Science in Elbląg, Lotnicza 2, 82-300 Elbląg, Polska
Acta Elbingensia 2023;50(1):6-9
Neurogenic dysphagia, should be distinguished from other symptoms that make swallowing difficult or impossible, such as odynophagia or aphagia. Dysphagia affects the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing. The most common cause of neurogenic dysphagia is an acute vascular event in the form of a stroke. In this case, dysphagia can occur in 50%–80% of patients. Aspiration complications may occur in 20% of patients.

The aim of the paper is to discuss the innovative functional diagnosis of the entire act of swallowing performed by cone bean computer tomography (CBCT).

Material and methods:
A novelty in the diagnosis of swallowing disorders are functional imaging tests recorded in the form of a 20-s video. The CBCT examination of the act of swallowing allows the assessment of the physiology and pathophysiology of specific phases of swallowing. During the analysis, we take into account: assessment of tongue mobility, dynamics of soft palate lifting, epiglottis, and hyoid bone movement. The examination shows the passage of food into the oesophagus and/or trachea.

Results and discussion:
Precise diagnostics of the etiology of swallowing disorders allows for a significant reduction of pulmonary complications associated with aspiration of food contents.

Dynamically developing methods of objective assessment of swallowing disorders in recent years, including the implementation of CBCT examination of the act of swallowing, as the test of choice, have significantly accelerated the treatment and rehabilitation process of patients with dysphagia. Precise diagnostics of individual phases facilitates the use of targeted electrostimulation, which has a significant impact in the process of improving swallowing function.

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